相信大家對 CSS Reset 已經不陌生了,而在多個專案實際使用過後,我漸漸轉向使用 normalize.css

稍微回顧一下 CSS Reset

從作者的表述及程式碼可知,reset 主要目的在歸零預設樣式,讓瀏覽器從零開始調整,並且不提供額外樣式,因此使用之後往往需要重新設定每種元素的樣式。

The goal of a reset stylesheet is to reduce browser inconsistencies in things like default line heights, margins and font sizes of headings, and so on.

原始碼

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/* http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/css/reset/ 
   v2.0 | 20110126
   License: none (public domain)
*/

html, body, div, span, applet, object, iframe,
h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, p, blockquote, pre,
a, abbr, acronym, address, big, cite, code,
del, dfn, em, img, ins, kbd, q, s, samp,
small, strike, strong, sub, sup, tt, var,
b, u, i, center,
dl, dt, dd, ol, ul, li,
fieldset, form, label, legend,
table, caption, tbody, tfoot, thead, tr, th, td,
article, aside, canvas, details, embed, 
figure, figcaption, footer, header, hgroup, 
menu, nav, output, ruby, section, summary,
time, mark, audio, video {
	margin: 0;
	padding: 0;
	border: 0;
	font-size: 100%;
	font: inherit;
	vertical-align: baseline;
}
/* HTML5 display-role reset for older browsers */
article, aside, details, figcaption, figure, 
footer, header, hgroup, menu, nav, section {
	display: block;
}
body {
	line-height: 1;
}
ol, ul {
	list-style: none;
}
blockquote, q {
	quotes: none;
}
blockquote:before, blockquote:after,
q:before, q:after {
	content: '';
	content: none;
}
table {
	border-collapse: collapse;
	border-spacing: 0;
}

進入 normalize.css

而 normalize.css 如同名字所明示的,它要做的是標準化、統一規格,並做為替代 CSS Reset 的另一個選擇。

Normalize.css makes browsers render all elements more consistently and in line with modern standards. It precisely targets only the styles that need normalizing.

Normalize.css is a small CSS file that provides better cross-browser consistency in the default styling of HTML elements. It’s a modern, HTML5-ready, alternative to the traditional CSS reset.

原始碼

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/*! normalize.css v2.1.3 | MIT License | git.io/normalize */

/* ==========================================================================
   HTML5 display definitions
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Correct `block` display not defined in IE 8/9.
 */

article,
aside,
details,
figcaption,
figure,
footer,
header,
hgroup,
main,
nav,
section,
summary {
    display: block;
}

/**
 * Correct `inline-block` display not defined in IE 8/9.
 */

audio,
canvas,
video {
    display: inline-block;
}

/**
 * Prevent modern browsers from displaying `audio` without controls.
 * Remove excess height in iOS 5 devices.
 */

audio:not([controls]) {
    display: none;
    height: 0;
}

/**
 * Address `[hidden]` styling not present in IE 8/9.
 * Hide the `template` element in IE, Safari, and Firefox < 22.
 */

[hidden],
template {
    display: none;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Base
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * 1. Set default font family to sans-serif.
 * 2. Prevent iOS text size adjust after orientation change, without disabling
 *    user zoom.
 */

html {
    font-family: sans-serif; /* 1 */
    -ms-text-size-adjust: 100%; /* 2 */
    -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Remove default margin.
 */

body {
    margin: 0;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Links
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove the gray background color from active links in IE 10.
 */

a {
    background: transparent;
}

/**
 * Address `outline` inconsistency between Chrome and other browsers.
 */

a:focus {
    outline: thin dotted;
}

/**
 * Improve readability when focused and also mouse hovered in all browsers.
 */

a:active,
a:hover {
    outline: 0;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Typography
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Address variable `h1` font-size and margin within `section` and `article`
 * contexts in Firefox 4+, Safari 5, and Chrome.
 */

h1 {
    font-size: 2em;
    margin: 0.67em 0;
}

/**
 * Address styling not present in IE 8/9, Safari 5, and Chrome.
 */

abbr[title] {
    border-bottom: 1px dotted;
}

/**
 * Address style set to `bolder` in Firefox 4+, Safari 5, and Chrome.
 */

b,
strong {
    font-weight: bold;
}

/**
 * Address styling not present in Safari 5 and Chrome.
 */

dfn {
    font-style: italic;
}

/**
 * Address differences between Firefox and other browsers.
 */

hr {
    -moz-box-sizing: content-box;
    box-sizing: content-box;
    height: 0;
}

/**
 * Address styling not present in IE 8/9.
 */

mark {
    background: #ff0;
    color: #000;
}

/**
 * Correct font family set oddly in Safari 5 and Chrome.
 */

code,
kbd,
pre,
samp {
    font-family: monospace, serif;
    font-size: 1em;
}

/**
 * Improve readability of pre-formatted text in all browsers.
 */

pre {
    white-space: pre-wrap;
}

/**
 * Set consistent quote types.
 */

q {
    quotes: "\201C" "\201D" "\2018" "\2019";
}

/**
 * Address inconsistent and variable font size in all browsers.
 */

small {
    font-size: 80%;
}

/**
 * Prevent `sub` and `sup` affecting `line-height` in all browsers.
 */

sub,
sup {
    font-size: 75%;
    line-height: 0;
    position: relative;
    vertical-align: baseline;
}

sup {
    top: -0.5em;
}

sub {
    bottom: -0.25em;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Embedded content
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove border when inside `a` element in IE 8/9.
 */

img {
    border: 0;
}

/**
 * Correct overflow displayed oddly in IE 9.
 */

svg:not(:root) {
    overflow: hidden;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Figures
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Address margin not present in IE 8/9 and Safari 5.
 */

figure {
    margin: 0;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Forms
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Define consistent border, margin, and padding.
 */

fieldset {
    border: 1px solid #c0c0c0;
    margin: 0 2px;
    padding: 0.35em 0.625em 0.75em;
}

/**
 * 1. Correct `color` not being inherited in IE 8/9.
 * 2. Remove padding so people aren't caught out if they zero out fieldsets.
 */

legend {
    border: 0; /* 1 */
    padding: 0; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * 1. Correct font family not being inherited in all browsers.
 * 2. Correct font size not being inherited in all browsers.
 * 3. Address margins set differently in Firefox 4+, Safari 5, and Chrome.
 */

button,
input,
select,
textarea {
    font-family: inherit; /* 1 */
    font-size: 100%; /* 2 */
    margin: 0; /* 3 */
}

/**
 * Address Firefox 4+ setting `line-height` on `input` using `!important` in
 * the UA stylesheet.
 */

button,
input {
    line-height: normal;
}

/**
 * Address inconsistent `text-transform` inheritance for `button` and `select`.
 * All other form control elements do not inherit `text-transform` values.
 * Correct `button` style inheritance in Chrome, Safari 5+, and IE 8+.
 * Correct `select` style inheritance in Firefox 4+ and Opera.
 */

button,
select {
    text-transform: none;
}

/**
 * 1. Avoid the WebKit bug in Android 4.0.* where (2) destroys native `audio`
 *    and `video` controls.
 * 2. Correct inability to style clickable `input` types in iOS.
 * 3. Improve usability and consistency of cursor style between image-type
 *    `input` and others.
 */

button,
html input[type="button"], /* 1 */
input[type="reset"],
input[type="submit"] {
    -webkit-appearance: button; /* 2 */
    cursor: pointer; /* 3 */
}

/**
 * Re-set default cursor for disabled elements.
 */

button[disabled],
html input[disabled] {
    cursor: default;
}

/**
 * 1. Address box sizing set to `content-box` in IE 8/9/10.
 * 2. Remove excess padding in IE 8/9/10.
 */

input[type="checkbox"],
input[type="radio"] {
    box-sizing: border-box; /* 1 */
    padding: 0; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * 1. Address `appearance` set to `searchfield` in Safari 5 and Chrome.
 * 2. Address `box-sizing` set to `border-box` in Safari 5 and Chrome
 *    (include `-moz` to future-proof).
 */

input[type="search"] {
    -webkit-appearance: textfield; /* 1 */
    -moz-box-sizing: content-box;
    -webkit-box-sizing: content-box; /* 2 */
    box-sizing: content-box;
}

/**
 * Remove inner padding and search cancel button in Safari 5 and Chrome
 * on OS X.
 */

input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-cancel-button,
input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-decoration {
    -webkit-appearance: none;
}

/**
 * Remove inner padding and border in Firefox 4+.
 */

button::-moz-focus-inner,
input::-moz-focus-inner {
    border: 0;
    padding: 0;
}

/**
 * 1. Remove default vertical scrollbar in IE 8/9.
 * 2. Improve readability and alignment in all browsers.
 */

textarea {
    overflow: auto; /* 1 */
    vertical-align: top; /* 2 */
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Tables
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove most spacing between table cells.
 */

table {
    border-collapse: collapse;
    border-spacing: 0;
}

其實光看 code 你也會了解其中差異,就讓我們用實例來展示

原始碼

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<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>css test</title>
    <!-- <link rel="stylesheet" href="//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/meyer-reset/2.0/reset.css"> -->
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/normalize/2.1.0/normalize.css">
</head>
<body>
    <h1>H1</h1>
    <h2>H2</h2>
    <h3>H3</h3>

    <p>原管規人裡以不樣義叫認年說商,裡象身示在球見計新寫!</p>
    <p>文模是人於心樣神總情飛環教光情識總內,花外一的組經。</p>

    <ul>
        <li>1</li>
        <li>2</li>
        <li>3</li>
        <li>4</li>
        <li>5</li>
    </ul>

    <ol>
        <li>li-1</li>
        <li>li-2</li>
        <li>li-3</li>
        <li>li-4</li>
        <li>li-5</li>
    </ol>

</body>
</html>

效果圖

這是 normalize.css 的效果

這是 css reset 的效果
發現了嗎?我刻意將兩張圖的大小調為接近,讓差異更明顯。

後記

其實兩者並無絕對的優劣高下之分,端看使用情境而定,適合你的對你來說就是好工具。